My focus this semester in many courses is the blockchain: I believe that a server-less, decentralized and consensus-based network is the future of the web. I want to explore different use cases for DApps (decentralized apps) and DAOs (decentralized autonomous organizations) in an art and design context.
In my "Energy"-class we were assigned with the task to power computation (in any form) with solar power. After investigating the energy consumption linked to the proof-of-work algorithm in blockchain applications like bitcoin or Ethereum I decided to explore how far this could be powered by solar energy. After some research I realized that the proof of work is theoretically a great idea - but not sustainable from an environmental and economic perspective in the longer run. Ethereum is planning to replace the proof-of-work with a proof-of-stake algorithm which relies on a stake-based verification/mining system rather than the cryptographic-puzzle that needs to be solved for proof-of-work. This will require less computational power (and real energy) as a hardware arms-race (miners competing for mining a block first) is avoided by design.
Based on my research that I presented in class I decided to look at use-cases for micro-controllers and blockchain. These should be low energy as they are powered by solar energy only and store environmental data gathered by sensors in the blockchain - creating a 'memory' of environmental data. So far the open-source IoT devices capable of running the necessary systems (node & geth) are rare: I found one git about measuring temperature with a Node 8266 board. This will be my starting point for further exploration. I plan to base my further work on this project on the hack and measure the necessary power consumption of the board, then explore an optimized use of solar energy (without relying too much on battery storage). I will investigate if it is possible or necessary to try to run a node directly on the device (highly independent but probably more power hungry) or use the device as an ultra low-energy transmission tool to another central device running a node via wifi/bluetooth/lora.
I plan to start with measuring environmental data, but the use cases could be quite varied: I am working in my Project Development Studio Class on an installation piece that runs possibly for an infinite time trying to randomly guess with quantum processes a certain quote on probablity - it would be conceptually interesting to store the failed attempts of this process "forever" in the "world memory" of the blockchain. Solar power would make sure that this guessing runs for an infinite time (excluding material failure).
To familiarize myself better with more abstract concepts in solidity (the language for Ethereum) I started with CryptoZombies, an interactive, game-based learning platform that teaches programming for the blockchain - by building a zombie game on the blockchain.
Directly related to our topic of energy:
In Solidity, your users have to pay every time they execute a function on your DApp using a currency called gas. Users buy gas with Ether (the currency on Ethereum), so your users have to spend ETH in order to execute functions on your DApp.
How much gas is required to execute a function depends on how complex that function's logic is. Each individual operation has a gas cost based roughly on how much computing resources will be required to perform that operation (e.g. writing to storage is much more expensive than adding two integers). The total gas cost of your function is the sum of the gas costs of all its individual operations.
Because running functions costs real money for your users, code optimization is much more important in Ethereum than in other programming languages. If your code is sloppy, your users are going to have to pay a premium to execute your functions — and this could add up to millions of dollars in unnecessary fees across thousands of users.
This means I should look into the most efficient ways to write contracts and store data in the blockchain - probably based on trusted open-zeppelin contract templates and decentralized storage with IPFS.
Here the PComp side of the setup: ESP 8266 wifi-module, LiPo, Solar-Panel + adafruit mcp73871 solar charger